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2016 Fall Technical Meeting

October 2-4, 2016 | Sheraton Pittsburgh Hotel at Station Square, Pittsburgh, PA

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About This Event

The FTM is the best educational opportunity available to you today! Each year, the Fall Technical Meeting (FTM) provides an outstanding opportunity to share ideas with others in the gear industry on design, analysis, manufacturing and application of gears, and gear drives and related products, as well as associated processes and procedures. Authors have the opportunity to present the results of their work to an audience of knowledgeable professionals from the United States and around the world and to participate in discussions with that audience.

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Sheraton Pittsburgh Hotel at Station Square
300 West Station Square Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15219

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  • $149.00 single/double
  • Hotel cut-off is September 9, 2016. We will not be able to get you rooms after this date.

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1 Session Member
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Welcome Reception
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Awards Luncheon
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Event Sessions

The AGMA 2016 Fall Technical Meeting (FTM) provides an outstanding opportunity for you to receive the latest research in the field, network with your peers, and learn about latest methods and cutting-edge technologies in use in the gearing industry today. Below are 23 papers that will be presented at the 2016 FTM. The papers have been organized around five sessions:

1 Manufacturing, Inspection, and Quality Control

Efficient Hard Finishing of Asymmetric Tooth Profiles and Topological Modifications by Generating Grinding

Andreas Mehr, Liebherr

New possibilities of modifications with the continuous generating grinding method will be presented, such as Deviation Free Topological grinding (DFT), Generated End Relief (GER), Noise Excitation Optimized modification (NEO), and hard finishing of asymmetric gears. The focus is on the explanation of the technical challenges, their solutions, and the principal function of the dressing and grinding processes.

The Whirling Process in a Company that Produces Worm Gear Drives

Massimiliano Turci, Consultant

This paper looks at the benefits that can be realized with the introduction of a whirling machine into the worm gear manufacturing facility. The benefits include time and cost savings, especially in regard to the need for grinding, increased quality, and environmental considerations due to not needing cutting oils.

Worm Screws High-Speed Manufacturing

Jean-Laurent Feutren, Affolter Technologies

The conventional set-up of a gear hobbing machine for the production of helical gears has the hob axis perpendicular (±30°) to the workpiece. This set-up does not allow for conventional manufacturing of wormgears. To solve this problem, a high-speed method will be presented that reverses the axis between the workpiece and tool and utilizes a high-speed spindle (up to 16 000 rpm). This method can produce wormgears eight times faster than conventional methods.

Twist Control Grinding (TCG)

Walter Graf, Reishauer AG

This paper introduces the latest process developments for the hard finishing of gears in regards to controlling flank twist. Flank twist occurs as a matter of course when machining helical gears that feature lead modifications and is brought about by the geometries and kinematics inherent in the continuous generating grinding of helical gears. Controlling the flank twist on gears, using twist control grinding (TCG), can either eliminate twist completely or introduce a counter-twist to counteract the deformation of gears under load.

2 Materials & Heat Treatment

Review of Microstructure and Properties of Non-Ferrous Alloys for Worm Application and Advantages of Centrifugally Cast Bi-Metal Gear Blanks

Giri Rajendran, Drexel University

This paper reviews the microstructure and properties of tin bronze, manganese bronze, and aluminum bronze materials that make them suitable for specific wormgear applications. The advantages of centrifugally cast bi-metal gear blanks and some common causes of wormgear failures are discussed.

Pre-Nitriding: A Means of Significantly Increasing Carburizing Throughput

Thomas Hart, SECO/WARWICK Group

Higher carburizing temperatures allow end users to use shorter cycle times and significantly increase production rates but can lead to grain growth. Pre-nitriding is a relatively new technology that addresses grain growth and allows carburizing end users to carburize at higher temperatures. Real-life case studies show how carburizing productivity has doubled, and sometimes tripled, using pre-nitriding.

Performance and Machining of Advanced Engineering Steels in Power Transmission Applications – Continued Developments

Lily Kamjou, Ovako

This paper discusses the potential gain for the power transmissions industry by making use of the material properties of Advanced Engineering Steels to support more demanding applications. Machining the Advanced Engineering Steels is discussed based on a number of recent studies. All studies indicate that by optimizing machining parameters and tools, the productivity and efficiency of these processes can be maintained, or even improved.

Gear Design Relevant Steel Cleanness Metrics

E. Buddy Damm, TimkenSteel Corporation

This paper describes the methods used to characterize premium quality clean steels through the use of statistics of extreme values (SEV) and the use of these data to perform gear design relevant engineering analysis of the potential for a gear failure due to bending fatigue in the root or flank. Literature evaluation, modeling results, and experimental results are presented in order to validate the approach.

Development of High Hardness-Cast Gears for High-Power Applications in the Mining Industry

Fabrice Wavelet, Ferry Capitain

Multiple solutions are available to increase the transmissible power of girth gears, including using a larger module, increasing the gear diameter, enlarging the face width, and increasing the hardness of the base material. Base material hardness, the only parameter that is not limited by cutting machine size, is being increased to meet higher power needs. This paper will review the related design and manufacturing impact of the high-hardness gears needed to meet today’s industry demands.

3 Application and Design & Rating

Computerized Design of Straight Bevel Gears with Optimized Profiles for Forging, Molding, or 3D Printing

Dr. Alfonso Fuentes, Rochester Institute of Technology

Research will be presented on whether there is a reference profile that will yield the same advantages for bevel gears as the involute for cylindrical gears. The spherical involute and octoidal profiles will be studied, and the virtual generation of bevel gears with the different profiles will be developed, and simulated, using advanced tools such as tooth contact analysis and finite element analysis.

Contact Fatigue Characterization of Through-Hardened Steel for Low-Speed Applications Like Hoisting

Michel Octrue, CETIM

Lubrication by grease is often employed on open gears that transmit power at low speeds. The rating methods found in ISO 6336 have shown that ISO is very conservative for grease-lubricated, through-hardened steel gears running with case-hardened pinions, specifically when considering service life. Fatigue SN curves resulting from tests will be compared and discussed with values given in ISO and AGMA gear rating

Determination of Load Distributions on Double Helical-Geared Planetary Gearboxes

Tobias Schulze, Dresden

The optimization and effective utilization of planetary gearbox designs require a detailed consideration of the loads on the gears. This paper presents a computer-aided calculation method that has been developed for planetary gearboxes with spur and helical gears and considers the most important influences on the load distribution. Using this information, a detailed load distribution is possible to reach the maximum capability of the gears.

Designing Very Strong Gear Teeth by Means of High Pressure Angles

Rick Miller, Drive Solutions LLC

This paper will show a method of designing and specifying gear teeth with much higher bending and surface contact strength than that of conventional gear teeth. The primary means of achieving this is by specifying gear teeth with significantly higher pressure angles. This paper will show calculation procedures, mathematical solutions, and the theoretical background and equations to achieve this.

AGMA 925-BXX - Status on Method to Predict Micropitting, Wear, and Scuffing

Two years ago, AGMA formed a sub-committee of the AGMA Helical Gear Rating Committee to review and revise AGMA 925-A03, with the specific goal of adding a method to predict the risk of micropitting to the information sheet. The presentation will cover conclusions to date, proposed changes, and the status of the information sheet.

Special Presentation

AGMA 925-BXX - Status on Method to Predict Micropitting, Wear, and Scuffing

Two years ago, AGMA formed a sub-committee of the AGMA Helical Gear Rating Committee to review and revise AGMA 925-A03, with the specific goal of adding a method to predict the risk of micropitting to the information sheet. The presentation will cover conclusions to date, proposed changes, and the status of the information sheet.

4 Efficiency, Lubrication, Noise, and Vibration

Impact of Surface Condition and Lubricant on Effective Gear Tooth Friction Coefficient

Aaron Isaacson, Penn State University

Using a four-square, power re-circulating gear test rig with high-accuracy torque transducers, losses due to operating speed, surface roughness, and torque level, including two different lubricants, were compared. Measurements of the effective coefficient of friction at the gear tooth flanks are provided. This paper summarizes the results obtained.

Surface Structure Shift for Ground Bevel Gears

Sebastian Strunk, The Gleason Works

A process is presented that improves the excitation behavior of a ground bevel gear set by altering the surface structure of a generated member along the path of contact from slot to slot. This process addresses this objectionable harmonic excitation by influencing each axis position in each line of the axis position table with small predetermined or random amounts.

Developing an Energy-Efficient Industrial Gear Oil

Shubhamita Basu, The Lubrizol Corporation Dan Wilkerson, The Lubrizol Corporation

This paper describes a laboratory test rig, test procedure, and results that are focused on quantifying increased operating efficiency with various synthetic lubricant formulations. Fluid evaluations were conducted in an industrial-scale worm gear efficiency rig. Operating under a wide range of speeds and loads, the rig produced sharp differentiation among fluids for their impact on power loss and operating temperature.

Analysis of Excitation Behavior of a Two-Stage Gearbox Based on a Validated Simulation Model

Marius Schroers, Aachen University

In order to reduce development and production costs of a gearbox, simulation models have been set up to predict the noise and vibration behavior of a gearbox before the prototype phase. A simulation model, verified by experimental results, is presented that is able to calculate the dynamic excitation behavior of a two-stage gearbox.

An Experimental and Analytical Comparison of the Noise Generated by Gears of Both Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) and Steel

Donald Houser, Ohio State University

Many have made claims concerning the relative noise performance of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) versus steel as a gearing material. Predictions based on measured tooth topographies of the transmission error and “sum of forces” gear noise metrics show that the iron gears should be slightly quieter than the steel gears at loads beneath the transmission error optimization “notch” torque and slightly louder above this torque. This paper presents results from a systematic experimental study to ascertain these differences.

5 Gear Wear & Failure

Numerical Thermal 3D Model to Predict the Surface and Body Temperature of Spur and Helical Polymer Gears

Niranjan Raghuraman, Romax

Tooth surface wear is an important failure mode in plastic gears and this primarily caused by the surface temperature increasing to a value close to the melting point of the material. Thus, it is critical to compute the temperature of the gear pair in an accurate fashion. This paper will focus on the prediction of gear temperature of plastic gears using a numerical heat transfer model based on 3D finite difference method.

Influence of the Defect Size on the Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity

Conventional calculation methods for the flank and tooth root load carrying capacity are well-established, but models that consider the defect size on the tooth root strength have not yet been applied in fatigue models for gears. This paper will introduce a method for calculating the tooth root load carrying capacity for gears while considering the influence of the defect size on the endurance fatigue strength of the tooth root.

Influence of Contact Conditions on the Onset of Micropitting in Rolling-Sliding Contacts Pertinent to Gear Applications

Amir Kadiric, Imperial College London

Recently, increased sliding has been one of the factors suggested to be responsible for the onset of micropitting, with the proposed underlying mechanism being the potential reduction of film thickness through increased sliding speed. This paper attempts to shed light on the tribological conditions that may lead to the onset of micropitting in lubricated, concentrated contacts representative of those occurring between gear teeth. In particular, the effect of slide-roll-ratio, surface roughness, and film thickness is studied.

Comparison of TIFF Load Capacity to Standardized Gear Failure Modes Using Boundary Conditions from an Efficient and Accurate Loaded Tooth Contact Analysis

Baydu Al, MEng, Smart Manufacturing Technology Ltd.

This study aims to improve the existing understanding of Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture (TIFF) load capacity and compare calculated load capacity to the allowable loading conditions for bending and pitting fatigue failure, based on standard calculation procedures. Possible methods that could be used to mitigate TIFF risk are presented, and the effect of these methods on the performance, with respect to the other failure modes, are quantified.

A New Approach to Repair Large Industrial Gears Damaged by Surface Degradation – The Refurbishment Using the Modification of Both the Profile Shift Coefficient and the Pressure Angle

Dr. Horacio Albertini, HASA, Horacio Albertini Ltda

Superficial degradation of industrial gears, and a lack of approaches to repair them, have resulted in many gears being discarded prematurely. This paper presents a computer program and method for repairing industrial gears, enabled by the recent advances in multi-axis CNC machine centers, and gear grinding, that considers the modification of both the profile shift coefficient and the pressure angle.

Special Presentation

Standardization Based on Innovations from the German Drive Technology Industry Network
Norbert Haefke, Verband Deutscher Maschinen

This paper will present a new calculation method that enables engineers to calculate the risk of flank fracture in new, and existing, cylindrical and bevel gears. Further design guidelines were also developed for the avoidance of flank fracture. The results were integrated the FVA-Workbench calculation software for implementation in the industry.


The AGMA 2016 Fall Technical Meeting (FTM) provides an outstanding opportunity for you to receive the latest research in the field, network with your peers, and learn about latest methods and cutting-edge technologies in use in the gearing industry today. Below are 23 papers that will be presented at the 2016 FTM. The papers have been organized around five sessions:

Baydu Al, MEng

Smart Manufacturing Technology Ltd.

Session 5: Gear Wear & Failure

Baydu Al is currently Senior Analyst / Software Engineer at Smart Manufacturing Technology. He contributes to technical development of SMT's MASTA software, specifically the Loaded Tooth Contact Analysis and analysis of Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture and Tooth Flank Breakage. Prior to joining SMT, he worked as a researcher at the University of Nottingham in gas turbine transmission systems and also worked on the application of computational fluid dynamics on power loss and oil management within aeroengine gearboxes.

Dr. Horacio Albertini, HASA

Horacio Albertini Ltda

Session 5: Gear Wear & Failure

Horácio Albertini Neto, born in Belo Horizonte Brazil, holds a PhD in mechanical engineering from the Polytechnic University of Milan. He started his professional career in 2002 as an industrial gearbox and power transmission design engineer at HASA Ltda. Since 2006, he has worked as an industrial manager in the same industry. In addition to his professional activity, he was a lecturer at Catholic University of Minas Gerais in 2013 and 2014, where he taught mechanical drawing and was invited to be a member of board of final projects in mechanical engineering. Furthermore, Horácio Albertini has a bachelor’s in civil engineering and a master’s degree in structure engineering from the Polytechnic University of Milan.

Shubhamita Basu

The Lubrizol Corporation

Session 4: Efficiency, Lubrication, Noise, and Vibration

Shubhamita Basu works as a technology manager with The Lubrizol Corporation, where she formulates lubricating additives for hydraulic and industrial gear oils. Shubha has been with Lubrizol since 2007 and has a PhD in chemistry from Case Western Reserve University.

Jens Brimmers

WZL of RWTH Aachen University

Mr. Jens Brimmers is a research assistant in the gear department at the WZL of RWTH Aachen University. Mr. Brimmers started his position in May 2015, and his research topics focus on the designing of gears, especially beveloid gears, and the development of the general FE-based tooth contact analysis program ZaKo3D. Mr. Brimmers graduated from the RWTH University in Aachen with a master’s degree in mechanical engineering, which focused on development and design engineering. Currently, he is also aiming for a master’s degree in business administration. While studying, he was working at the gear department.

E. Buddy Damm

TimkenSteel Corporation

Session 2: Materials & Heat Treatment

Jean-Laurent Feutren

Affolter Technologies

Session 1: Manufacturing, Inspection, and Quality Control

Jean-Laurent Feutren, Applications Manager at Affolter Technologies, started his studies at the age of 16 by beginning an apprenticeship of industrial design. He had the opportunity to do this in his home region, the Swiss Bernese Jura, which is the industrial cradle of watchmakers and machine tool manufacturers. Obtaining his CFC (federal certificate of capacity) at the age of 20, he immediately joined the HE ARC, the mechanical engineering school in St-Imier and Le Locle. The partner company for his bachelor’s degree was Willemin-Macodel in Delémont. At the age of 23, at the end of his engineer schooling, he immediately joined Affolter Technologies SA as a mechanical engineer. Affolter Technologies SA is active in the development and manufacture of small gear hobbing machines. During his 5 years at Affolter, he has developed new products for them. Since last year, he has increased his involvement in the applications and differential hobbing processes. Client applications is a full-time task, which made him stop the mechanical development to improve his capacities in gear and worm machining processes.

Dr. Alfonso Fuentes

Rochester Institute of Technology

Session 3: Application and Design & Rating

Walter Graf

Reishauer AG

Session 1: Manufacturing, Inspection, and Quality Control

At present, Walter Graf works as the Marketing Manager for Reishauer AG, a manufacturer of gear grinding machine tools in Switzerland. After completing his toolmaking apprenticeship in 1974, he worked for ten years in tool and mold making workshops. Following this, he continued his studies in Australia and the UK and was awarded a Bachelor of Science Degree (Honors). Some 23 years ago, he began as a product manager for superabrasives at Winterthur Technology Group in Switzerland, and prior to the purchase of Winterthur by 3M in 2011, he held the position of Chief Marketing Officer for the entire Winterthur Group. At 3M, his role changed to Global Segment Leader for bonded abrasives and later to Senior Technical Consultant and Trainer. In January 2014, he joined Reishauer AG in Switzerland.

Norbert Haefke

Verband Deutscher Maschinen

Thomas Hart


Session 2: Materials & Heat Treatment

Amir Kadiric

Imperial College London

Session 5: Gear Wear & Failure

Andreas Mehr


Session 1: Manufacturing, Inspection, and Quality Control

Dr.-Ing. Andreas Mehr is responsible for technology development of gear grinding and gear shaping at Liebherr. He began his professional career at the Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany (1992–1999), where he received his degrees in mechanical engineering. Afterwards, he worked for 5 years as a scientist in the manufacturing and materials technology group at the wbk Institute of Production Science of the Universität Karlsruhe (TH). The topic of his PhD thesis was “Hard precision machining of gears with crystalline diamond coated tools by gear shaping.” Since March 2004, Andreas Mehr has been working at Liebherr-Verzahntechnik GmbH in Kempten, Germany. In addition to his present leadership role in technology development, he has also been the head of the testing department since 2008. Dr. Mehr previously presented at the AGMA Fall Technical Meeting in 2013.

Rick Miller

Drive Solutions LLC

Session 3: Application and Design & Rating

Niranjan Raghuraman


Session 5: Gear Wear & Failure

Giri Rajendran

Drexel University

Session 2: Materials & Heat Treatment

Massimiliano Turci


Session 1: Manufacturing, Inspection, and Quality Control

Massimiliano Turci is a consultant in gear technology and the design of cam mechanisms. He has a master’s degree in mechanical engineering at the “Alma Mater Studiorum” University of Bologna. He began as a CAD manager and developed X-Camme, a cam design software used in the packaging and beverage machinery industry. He then started working on gears as a member of the Italian KISSsoft staff for training and engineering. Now his professional experience is primarily in the development of computational models for enclosed gearboxes: planetary, helical, bevel, and wormgear. He is a member of the AGMA Wormgearing Committee, the UNI (Italian national body) Gears Committee and the ISO workgroups for gear calculations and micropitting. He presented a paper about worm gearboxes efficiency at last year’s AGMA Fall Technical Meeting.

Fabrice Wavelet

Ferry Capitain

Session 2: Materials & Heat Treatment

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